Influenza is an infectious disease commonly characterized by fever, muscles aches, sore throat, headache, and fatigue. A quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine was licensed in the United States in 2012, and a quadrivalent live virus nasal spray vaccine was licensed in 2013. The Italian word influenza derived from a Latin word for the influence of the stars on human affairs — a grim visitation beyond anyone’s control. In 1947, Jonas Salk, one of the vaccine's creators, began to develop a polio vaccine, which was perfected and approved in 1955. Also in 1936, Macfarlane Burnet discovered that influenza virus could be grown in embryonated hens’ eggs. Unusual flu-like activity was first identified in … The protective efficacy of these inactivated vaccines was demonstrated in the 1950s. Influenza is caused by a virus that is transmitted from person to person through airborne respiratory secretions. The 1918 influenza pandemic was the most devastating single disease outbreak in modern history, and examining the virus that caused it may help prepare for, … The need for a 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine became apparent after the strains for the seasonal flu vaccine had already been selected, so that a separate vaccine was created. An outbreak can occur if a new strain of influenza virus emerges against which the population has no immunity. The influenza pandemic of 1918–19 resulted from such an occurrence and affected populations throughout the world. The pandemic is commonly believed to have occurred in three waves. Some isolates of influenza A virus cause severe disease both in domestic poultry and, rarely, in humans. Influenza vaccines did not exist at the time, and even antibiotics had not been developed yet. It is generally caused by one of two types of influenza virus: influenza A or influenza B. This led to the study of the virus’s characteristics and the development and use of inactivated vaccines in the late 1930s and 1940s. For example, penicillin was not discovered until 1928. The influenza virus was discovered in the early 1930s, and scientists developed a working vaccine by the 1940s, when it was first used on soldiers during World War II. Likewise, no flu antiviral drugs were available. At the time, scientists had not yet discovered flu viruses, but we know today that the 1918 pandemic was caused by an influenza A (H1N1) virus. Before 1918, it had come and gone in cycles, a serious illness, especially for the elderly, but nowhere near as deadly as smallpox, yellow fever or cholera. The H1N1 virus that caused the outbreak was discovered to possess genetic material from human, avian, and two different swine influenza viruses. The 2009 H1N1 outbreak was not nearly as deadly as the pandemic of 1918–19. Influenza, or flu, is a virus that attacks the respiratory system. 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